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Shachi says

A stroke happens when the blood supply to a part of your brain is suddenly interrupted, causing a damage to the brain tissue. Most strokes happen because a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain or neck. A stroke can cause movement problems, pain, numbness, and problems with thinking, remembering, speaking. Some people also have emotional problems,such as depression, after a stroke. If you have diabetes, your chances of having a stroke are 2 to 4 times higher than in people who don’t have diabetes. How do I know whether I’m at high risk for a stroke? Having diabetes raises your risk for stroke. But your risk is even greater if • you’re over age 55 • your family background isAfricanAmerican • you’ve already had a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (also called a TIAor a ministroke) • you have a family history of stroke or TIAs • you have heart disease • you have high blood pressure • you’re overweight • you have high LDL(bad) cholesterol and low HDL (good) cholesterol levels • you smoke How can I lower my risk of having a stroke? Lower your risk by keeping your blood glucose (sugar), blood pressure, and cholesterol on target with healthy eating, physical activity, and, if needed, medicine. And if you smoke, quit. What are the warning signs of a stroke? Typical warning signs of a stroke develop suddenly and can include • weakness or numbness on one side of the body • sudden confusion or trouble understanding • trouble talking • dizziness, loss of balance, or trouble walking • trouble seeing out of one or both eyes • double vision • A severe headache How is a stroke diagnosed? A number of tests may be done if a stroke is suspected: • CT and MRI tests use special scans to provide images of the brain. • An ECG (electrocardiogram) provides information on heart rate and rhythm. • An ultrasound examination can show problems in the carotid arteries, which carry blood from the heart to the brain. • In a cerebral arteriogram, a small tube is inserted into an artery and positioned in the neck. The health care provider injects dye into the artery. Then the provider takes X rays to look for narrowed or blocked arteries What are the treatments for stroke? Treatment you need right away “Clot-busting” drugs must be given within hours after a stroke to minimize damage. Surgical treatments you may need Several options for surgical treatment of blocked blood vessels are available. These include • Carotid artery surgery, also called carotid endarterectomy removes buildups of fat inside the artery and restores blood flow to the brain. • Carotid stenting can remove a blockage in a blood vessel to the brain. A small tube with a balloon attached is threaded into the narrowed or blocked blood vessel. Then the balloon is inflated, opening the narrowed artery. A wire tube, or stent, may be left in place to help keep the artery open. Other treatments Treatment following a stroke includes treatments and exercises to restore function or help people relearn skills. Physical, occupational, and speech therapy may be included, as well as psychological counseling. Steps to prevent future problems should include quitting smoking, healthy eating, physical activity and medicines to manage blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels.
A stroke happens when the blood supply to a part of your brain is suddenly interrupted, causing a damage to the brain tissue. Most strokes happen because a blood clot blocks a blood vessel in the brain or neck. A stroke can cause movement problems, pain, numbness, and problems with thinking, remembering, speaking. Some people also have emotional problems,such as depression, after a stroke. If... (Read More)
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Shachi says

A balanced diet could help to meet the nutritional requirements of your father Here are some guidelines that should be remembered while suggesting a diet. •He should be advised adequate proteins in the diet. Tuberculosis can cause loss of muscle mass, which can be avoided by taking adequate protein. Foods rich in protein like meat, milk and milk products, pulses, fish, and eggs can be recommended. Protein-rich drinks can also be advised, especially if the patient has a low appetite. •Fresh fruits and salad vegetables should form a part of the diet as they are not only tasty and easy to digest, but they are also rich in micronutrients. If needed, he should be prescribed nutritional supplements to prevent their deficiencies. • Micronutrients help to increase the immunity and are often deficient in tuberculosis patient. Foods rich in micronutrients should be advised to the patient. -Vitamin A is present in liver, eggs, green leafy vegetables, and carrots. -Vitamin B6 is present in cereals, meat, and dry fruits. -Citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C. -Foods rich in iron include liver, kidney, whole grain cereals and dark green leafy vegetables. - Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates are found in bread, pasta, rice, cereal, grains (rice, oats), and starchy vegetables (potatoes, corn, peas). You may need to control the amount of carbohydrate you eat to help control your blood sugar levels. - Sodium: You may need to decrease the amount of sodium in your diet if your body is retaining fluids. When you retain fluids, you will have swelling in your body. Ask your caregiver for more information about a low-sodium diet. •Liquids: You may also have to drink fewer liquids if you have swelling. Liquids include water, milk, juice, soda, and other beverages. Some foods contain liquid, such as soup. Foods that are liquid at room temperatures, such as gelatin or popsicles, must also be counted as a liquid. Ask your dietitian how much liquid you may drink each day. Alcohol should be avoided as far as far as possible. Alcohol damages the liver, and anti-tuberculosis medications also often affect the liver. Therefore, patients should be advised to keep away from alcohol.
A balanced diet could help to meet the nutritional requirements of your father Here are some guidelines that should be remembered while suggesting a diet. •He should be advised adequate proteins in the diet. Tuberculosis can cause loss of muscle mass, which can be avoided by taking adequate protein. Foods rich in protein like meat, milk and milk products, pulses, fish, and eggs can be... (Read More)
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Shachi says

Exams and Tests for diabetic foot disease: All individuals with diabetes should receive an annual foot examination to identify high-risk foot conditions. This examination should include assessment of protective sensation, foot structure and biomechanics, vascular status, and skin integrity. People with one or more high-risk foot conditions should be evaluated more frequently for the development of additional risk factors. People with neuropathy should have a visual inspection of their feet at every visit with a health care professional. Vascular Assessment: Vascular assessment is done to determine the blood flow to the feet and the state of peripheral vascular disease. Ischemia of the feet increases the risk of infection, slows the healing process and may lead to gangrene. • Feel for pedal pulses, anterior tibial, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis. Diminished or absent pulses are the most important sign of insufficient blood flow. • Ask about intermittent claudication or the calf pain brought about by walking. This occurs when the blood supply cannot meet the oxygen demands demands of the exercising muscle. • Ask about rest pain –Usually this is a sign of advanced ischaemia, occurs on the forefoot by hanging the foot in a dependent position. Ankle brachial index (ABI) - A Doppler ultrasound is used to measure the blood pressure at the brachial artery and ankle. The systolic pressure of the brachial artery is divided into the systolic pressure of the pedal arteries. The result should be 0.9-1.0 a low result means the blood flow to the feet is compromised. In severe ischemia the following are usually seen. • Loss of hair. • Poor nail growth. • Cold feet. • Dry scaly skin. • Fat pad atrophy. Neurological Assessment To determine the state of the nerves to the feet and degree of sensation loss. Sensory changes can be assessed by: • Using a 128 Hz tuning fork to assess vibration at the ankle. • Using a 10 g or 5.07 monofilament to determine sensation. • Temperature sensation can be assessed by holding two test tubes one containing warm water the other cold and asking the patient to determine which is touching his foot. USE OF MONOFILAMENT 1. Use the 10g or 5.07 monofilament to test sensation. 2. Ask the patient to look away or close their eyes. 3. Apply the filament perpendicular to the skin’s surface 4. The approach, skin contact and departure of the monofilament should be approximately 105 seconds duration. 5. Apply sufficient force to allow the filament to bend. 6. Do not allow the filament to slide across the skin or make repetitive contact at the test site. 7. Vary the order and timing of successive test (in order to reduce the potential for guessing on the part of the patient). 8. Ask the patient to respond ‘yes’ when the filament is felt. 9. Do not apply the filament to an ulcer site, callous, scar or necrotic tissue.
Exams and Tests for diabetic foot disease: All individuals with diabetes should receive an annual foot examination to identify high-risk foot conditions. This examination should include assessment of protective sensation, foot structure and biomechanics, vascular status, and skin integrity. People with one or more high-risk foot conditions should be evaluated more frequently for the development... (Read More)
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Swathi says

It is very simple method and same method can be applied across most of the glucometers. The steps are: • Take a sterile needle (lancet) and prick tip of one of your fingers. • Blood comes out as a drop forms at the tip of your finger It is ideal not to press the site of prick ad the needle prick should be deep enough for the drop of blood to spontaneously appear • Place the drop of blood on test strip, provided along with the glucometer. The area, where blood drop is to be put on the strip, is clearly indicated • Put the other end of the strip, into area earmarked on the glucometer, for inserting the strip • The glucometer will sense the strip and through its mechanism, analyze and give the result of blood glucose levels
It is very simple method and same method can be applied across most of the glucometers. The steps are: • Take a sterile needle (lancet) and prick tip of one of your fingers. • Blood comes out as a drop forms at the tip of your finger It is ideal not to press the site of prick ad the needle prick should be deep enough for the drop of blood to spontaneously appear • Place the drop of blood on... (Read More)
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Shachi says

Diabetes, being a serious metabolic disorder, characterised by abnormal blood sugar levels due to improper utilisation of insulin, requires regular checks of sugar levels in the blood. Therefore, blood glucose metres come into play. They help in managing diabetes efficiently by monitoring alterations in the sugar levels. The market is brimming with a wide range of blood glucose metres; from the most basic to the most advanced. There will be differences in the blood sugar condition among individuals and so they must not be taken in consideration with your friends and yourself, but only yourself. While buying a blood sugar monitor, you need to primarily keep in mind its features that are- • Repeatable accurate results- The glucose meter should read the solution at the required level that is specified for the solution. Other alternative way is to test the accuracy of your glucose meter readings with that the laboratory tests reports. Both the results should be within 15%. • Coding- Certain blood glucose monitors have an option of entering code depending upon the type of test strips they use. Coding helps the glucose meter to deliver accurate test results. Though the advanced metres don’t have the option of coding because of the efficiency of the test strips. • Storage options for supplies and data • Blood Sample Size- For accurate results, test with required amount of blood sample only. • Test location flexibility • Cleaning and Maintenance- Knowledge about its cleanliness and maintenance is important for accurate readings • Ease of use- Easily held, clear numbers • Check for special features- easy handling buttons, test strips, illuminated screens, audio display(useful for people with impaired vision) Though the blood glucose metres are a bit pricy, you must look for the special features run by manufacturers and retail stores. The best deals can be found online. While purchasing, make sure you look at the options and select on the basis of : 1. Test strip expense : Check out for the best meters and test strips depending on your usage. Make sure to know the cost of each test strip and look up good dealers. Figure out the lifetime cost for the product. 2. Test flexibility : This is one of the most important factors to be considered. It would be very painful if you prick the same place of your finger all the time during testing the diabetes sugar levels. Recent advanced glucose meters are provided with alternative site testing, which means that you can take blood samples from other areas like forearm or thigh, apart from your finger tip. It is very important that you look at your options and make a choice based on what best fits your needs. Some of the popular metres are: Acu-Check Active Glucometer/ One Touch Select Simple Blood Glucose Monitoring System/Dr. Morpen Gluco One BG-02 Glucometer etc.
Diabetes, being a serious metabolic disorder, characterised by abnormal blood sugar levels due to improper utilisation of insulin, requires regular checks of sugar levels in the blood. Therefore, blood glucose metres come into play. They help in managing diabetes efficiently by monitoring alterations in the sugar levels. The market is brimming with a wide range of blood glucose metres; from the... (Read More)
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